عدد المساهمات : 479
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/01/2008
العمر : 22
الموقع : ام الدنيا
|موضوع: After Hellenic Greece الخميس ديسمبر 10, 2009 3:33 am|| |
HELLENISM (Fleming, Ch. 3)
After Hellenic Greece404 BC- Athens falls to Sparta
359 BC- Philip II becomes ruler of Macedonia
- Sparta and then, later, Thebes control the Greek mainland
- But neither are effective sovereigns
- Macedonia on the rise
- 338 BC Macedonia defeats Greeks at Chaeronea
- Macedonia sends ambassadors to Athens and Thebes with terms for peace
- Philip II’s son Alexander (18 years old) goes to Athens as an ambassador
- 336 BC Philip II is assassinated: Rumor has it that this was at Alexander’s request since Philip divorced Alexander’s mother and removed Alexander from political role.
- Alexander succeeds Philip II
Who was Alexander?
[/u][/b]--------------------------Plutarch (from Parallel Lives): -Plutarch seeks to capture the spirit of Alexander more than to capture events exactly as they happened: -compare with the Bible, Thucydides, modern view of history…Plutarch remarks that:
- Philip II was told upon Alexander’s birth that his son would be great
- Alexander’s "breath and body all over was so fragrant as to perfume the clothes which he wore next to him."
- Alexander was addicted to drinking
- Whenever Alexander heard that Philip had taken any town of importance, he would see it as another lost chance to show his own greatness: -i.e., the proportion to which his father augmented the kingdom was inversely proportional to the opportunities open for Alexander to exercise his own courage and obtain glory.
- Alexander’s style of leadership was "to persuade rather than to command": Alexander valued reason as primary.
- Educated under Aristotle, "the most learned and most celebrated philosopher of his time", he studied ethics, politics, metaphysical theory, medicinal arts.
- He carried Aristotle’s corrected copy of the Iliad with him as a testament to military virtue. He also read the three tragic poets (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides).
- Philip realized the greatness/ leadership potential of Alexander and said: "O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee."
---------------------------------A recollection of Alexander’s major military campaigns: (EL) Map
------------------------------------------Diodorus of Sicily (~36 BC) on Alexander (from Library of World History):-Alexander’s last plans included:
- 336 BC Alexander crushes rebellion in Thebes and sells all survivors into slavery
- 334 BC Alexander defeats Persians and soon after controls all territory west of the Euphrates.
- 332 BC Alexander conquers Egypt and founded Alexandria in Nile Delta.
- Alexander goes through Babylon and seizes royal treasure and burns the city
- He then sets out to conquer India (present day Pakistan), but with tired troops and an unexpected, fierce resistance (and don’t forget, --ELEPHANTS), he backs off and sails down the Indus river to Indian Ocean.
- Along the way, he finds present day Karachi and names it after himself.
- 323 BC Alexander catches a fever and died.
*****THE HELLENISTIC ERA BEGINS WITH ALEXANDER’S DEATH (he was 33 years old): 323 BC
- an ambitious naval upgrading (1000 ships and numerous ports)
- 6 expensive temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Macedonia, Troy
- *** Transplant populations from Asia to Europe & vice versa to tie together everyone’s kinship and friendly feeling.
- A large tomb for Philip II; as large as any of the great pyramids (did Alexander have a role in Philip’s death?)
- But alas, Alexander’s successors decided not to implement any of these extravagant plans.
- Johann Gustav (1833) coins the expression "Hellenization" to describe the impact of Greece on the Middle East after Alexander’s death.
- While Alexander was alive, he appointed governors to look after the new territories.
- Upon his death, let’s just say, the appointed governors promoted themselves to kings!
- In Syria, the Seleucids ruled
- In Egypt, the Ptolemies ruled
- In Pergamon (in modern day Turkey), the Attalids ruled
- So, chapter two refers to the "Hellenic style" and chapter three refers to the "Hellenistic" style.
- But do not only think of Greek as the "uninfluenced influencer"; Greek culture, coming under a number of influences became more cosmopolitan as well.
Sculpture- First School of Pergamon
- Like Athens, Pergamon developed around an acra
- Its geography makes it defensible, except for the southern front
- Pergamon gains a reputation as a second Athens, but it differs in some ways: 1) there is an overall structural plan to the city (it is not just a composition of individual buildings as in Athens) but 2) that overall structural plan is actually a bit incommensurate with the natural environment.
- Second School of Pergamon- Differences between the two Schools and the differences with Hellenic Style
- Subject matter
- Where are they found and what does that tell us?
IDEAS: Individualism, Realism, Empiricism
(1) Hellenistic Individualism
Note: sometimes the esteem of heroes was turned inward to evoke through identification an individualistic pride (e.g., Altar of Zeus frieze)
- Hero-esteem plays large role (e.g., Alexander the Great, King Mausolus)
Individualism in Hellenistic Philosophy Epicurus: "Letter to Menoeceus"
- Hellenistic "rise of professionalism" and how it leads back ultimately to hero-esteem
- How the rise of professionalism leads to pride in individual
Some questions to think about:
- Philosophy is connected to happiness.
- But what is philosophy?
- Preconditions of a good life:
- 1) recognize that the gods are not anthropomorphic
- 2) do not fear death
- Epicurus the hedonist? What kind of hedonist is he?
1) Would Epicurus agree with Gilgamesh’s actions in the face of his mortality?Individualism and the Arts
2) What would Epicurus think of Oedipus’s blaming himself for what was predetermined? (See Matthews/Platt) Do you think that taking care of the physical body is a moral duty?
- Art moves into private corridors
- Subject matter of art shifts from Hellenic triumphing over adversity to resignation to forces of cosmopolitan life.
- The emotions of resignation are not usually shared with the community
-Enjoy the Here and Now
Music:Seikolos Skolion(2) Hellenistic Realism
- a difference of intent?
- It is difficult to find the ideal amidst pluralism
- It is much easier to focus on the realities of existence (e.g., emotions, death, pluralism)
- Realism in sculpture: Old Market Woman;
- (EL) Drunken Old Woman (200s BCE)
- Old Market Woman
- Realism, emotionalism- Laocoon Group
- The difference between Hellenistic realism and Egyptian realism
(3) Hellenistic Empiricism
Why thinkers like Epicurus invited empiricism
- What is it?
- Contrast this with rationalism
- Observation vs. abstract thinking
Gains in mathematics, solar calendar, engines, and especially music: most are practical achievements
A look at contemporary empiricism: do we value science more than speculation?
Over-emphasizing the sensual above the rational
(EL) Sleeping Satyr
(EL) Venus De Milo
Hellenistic Ideas (as outgowths of Hellenic Ideas)
Rise of Antiquarianism
- Hellenic social humanism becomes (1) Hellenistic individualism
- Hellenic noble idealism becomes (2) Hellenistic realism
- Hellenic uncompromising rationalism becomes (3) Hellenistic empiricism
- Hellenistic scholars are, in general, not very original
- E.g., Theocritus’s reliance on Homeric themes
Altar of Zeus
- The Altar of Zeus: reliance on the old Greek myths