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 After Hellenic Greece

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عدد المساهمات : 479
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/01/2008
العمر : 22
الموقع : ام الدنيا

مُساهمةموضوع: After Hellenic Greece   الخميس ديسمبر 10, 2009 3:33 am

HELLENISM (Fleming, Ch. 3)

After Hellenic Greece

404 BC- Athens falls to Sparta

  • Sparta and then, later, Thebes control the Greek mainland
  • But neither are effective sovereigns






359 BC- Philip II becomes ruler of Macedonia



Philip II

  • Macedonia on the rise
  • 338 BC Macedonia defeats Greeks at Chaeronea
(EL) Phalanx

  • Macedonia sends ambassadors to Athens and Thebes with terms for peace
  • Philip II’s son Alexander (18 years old) goes to Athens as an ambassador



  • 336 BC Philip II is assassinated: Rumor has it that this was at Alexander’s request since Philip divorced Alexander’s mother and removed Alexander from political role.
  • Alexander succeeds Philip II




Who was Alexander?
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--------------------------Plutarch (from Parallel Lives):
-Plutarch seeks to capture the spirit of Alexander more than to capture events exactly as they happened:
-compare with the Bible, Thucydides, modern view of history…
Plutarch remarks that:

  • Philip II was told upon Alexander’s birth that his son would be great
  • Alexander’s "breath and body all over was so fragrant as to perfume the clothes which he wore next to him."
  • Alexander was addicted to drinking
  • Whenever Alexander heard that Philip had taken any town of importance, he would see it as another lost chance to show his own greatness: -i.e., the proportion to which his father augmented the kingdom was inversely proportional to the opportunities open for Alexander to exercise his own courage and obtain glory.
  • Alexander’s style of leadership was "to persuade rather than to command": Alexander valued reason as primary.
  • Educated under Aristotle, "the most learned and most celebrated philosopher of his time", he studied ethics, politics, metaphysical theory, medicinal arts.
  • He carried Aristotle’s corrected copy of the Iliad with him as a testament to military virtue. He also read the three tragic poets (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides).
  • Philip realized the greatness/ leadership potential of Alexander and said: "O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee."


---------------------------------A recollection of Alexander’s major military campaigns:


(EL) Map


  • 336 BC Alexander crushes rebellion in Thebes and sells all survivors into slavery
  • 334 BC Alexander defeats Persians and soon after controls all territory west of the Euphrates.

  • 332 BC Alexander conquers Egypt and founded Alexandria in Nile Delta.
  • Alexander goes through Babylon and seizes royal treasure and burns the city
  • He then sets out to conquer India (present day Pakistan), but with tired troops and an unexpected, fierce resistance (and don’t forget, --ELEPHANTS), he backs off and sails down the Indus river to Indian Ocean.
  • Along the way, he finds present day Karachi and names it after himself.
  • 323 BC Alexander catches a fever and died.


------------------------------------------Diodorus of Sicily (~36 BC) on Alexander (from Library of World History):

-Alexander’s last plans included:

  • an ambitious naval upgrading (1000 ships and numerous ports)
  • 6 expensive temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Macedonia, Troy
  • *** Transplant populations from Asia to Europe & vice versa to tie together everyone’s kinship and friendly feeling.
  • A large tomb for Philip II; as large as any of the great pyramids (did Alexander have a role in Philip’s death?)
  • But alas, Alexander’s successors decided not to implement any of these extravagant plans.



*****THE HELLENISTIC ERA BEGINS WITH ALEXANDER’S DEATH (he was 33 years old): 323 BC

  • Johann Gustav (1833) coins the expression "Hellenization" to describe the impact of Greece on the Middle East after Alexander’s death.


  • While Alexander was alive, he appointed governors to look after the new territories.
  • Upon his death, let’s just say, the appointed governors promoted themselves to kings!

    • In Syria, the Seleucids ruled
    • In Egypt, the Ptolemies ruled
    • In Pergamon (in modern day Turkey), the Attalids ruled

    </LI>


  • So, chapter two refers to the "Hellenic style" and chapter three refers to the "Hellenistic" style.
  • But do not only think of Greek as the "uninfluenced influencer"; Greek culture, coming under a number of influences became more cosmopolitan as well.



PERGAMON


  • Like Athens, Pergamon developed around an acra
  • Its geography makes it defensible, except for the southern front
  • Pergamon gains a reputation as a second Athens, but it differs in some ways: 1) there is an overall structural plan to the city (it is not just a composition of individual buildings as in Athens) but 2) that overall structural plan is actually a bit incommensurate with the natural environment.



Sculpture

- First School of Pergamon


- Second School of Pergamon

- Differences between the two Schools and the differences with Hellenic Style





Pergamene Painting

  • Subject matter
  • Where are they found and what does that tell us?

Mosaics





IDEAS: Individualism, Realism, Empiricism


(1) Hellenistic Individualism


  • Hero-esteem plays large role (e.g., Alexander the Great, King Mausolus)

Note: sometimes the esteem of heroes was turned inward to evoke through identification an individualistic pride (e.g., Altar of Zeus frieze)


  • Hellenistic "rise of professionalism" and how it leads back ultimately to hero-esteem
  • How the rise of professionalism leads to pride in individual

Individualism in Hellenistic Philosophy

  • Stoicism


  • Epicureanism

Epicurus: "Letter to Menoeceus"

  • Philosophy is connected to happiness.
  • But what is philosophy?
  • Preconditions of a good life:
  • 1) recognize that the gods are not anthropomorphic
  • 2) do not fear death
  • Epicurus the hedonist? What kind of hedonist is he?

Some questions to think about:
    1) Would Epicurus agree with Gilgamesh’s actions in the face of his mortality?

    2) What would Epicurus think of Oedipus’s blaming himself for what was predetermined? (See Matthews/Platt) Do you think that taking care of the physical body is a moral duty?

Individualism and the Arts

  • Art moves into private corridors
  • Subject matter of art shifts from Hellenic triumphing over adversity to resignation to forces of cosmopolitan life.


  • The emotions of resignation are not usually shared with the community




-Enjoy the Here and Now


Music:

Seikolos Skolion



(2) Hellenistic Realism

  • It is difficult to find the ideal amidst pluralism
  • It is much easier to focus on the realities of existence (e.g., emotions, death, pluralism)
  • Realism in sculpture: Old Market Woman;


  • (EL) Drunken Old Woman (200s BCE)
  • Old Market Woman
  • Realism, emotionalism- Laocoon Group

  • The difference between Hellenistic realism and Egyptian realism

- a difference of intent?

(3) Hellenistic Empiricism

  • What is it?
  • Contrast this with rationalism

    • Observation vs. abstract thinking

  • Why thinkers like Epicurus invited empiricism
  • Gains in mathematics, solar calendar, engines, and especially music: most are practical achievements

    • A look at contemporary empiricism: do we value science more than speculation?

  • Over-emphasizing the sensual above the rational
(EL) Sleeping Satyr
(EL) Venus De Milo


Hellenistic Ideas (as outgowths of Hellenic Ideas)

  • Hellenic social humanism becomes (1) Hellenistic individualism
  • Hellenic noble idealism becomes (2) Hellenistic realism
  • Hellenic uncompromising rationalism becomes (3) Hellenistic empiricism


Rise of Antiquarianism

  • Hellenistic scholars are, in general, not very original
  • E.g., Theocritus’s reliance on Homeric themes




  • The Altar of Zeus: reliance on the old Greek myths



Altar of Zeus
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After Hellenic Greece
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